Diamonds are one of the most sought-after gemstones in the world. The fascinating beauty and endless sparkle of this gemstone have captivated mankind since ancient times. Known to be the hardest naturally occurring substance found on the earth, the diamond is the only gem that is made of a single element, which is carbon. This stunning gemstone is formed under high temperature and pressure conditions within the earth’s crust. Its unique chemical composition, structure and formation process make it a truly extraordinary gemstone.
Diamonds are believed to have been first mined around 4000 years ago in India along the banks of river Krishna, Penner and Godavari. According to historians, India began trading diamonds as early as the 4th century BC. In the 1700s, Brazil emerged as the important source for diamonds. The first great South African diamond deposit was discovered in the late 1800s. Today, diamonds are mined in different parts of the world. Some of the important sources are Angola, Botswana, South Africa, Russia and Canada.
The word diamond is derived from the Greek word ‘adamas,’ which means indestructible or invincible. Rated 10 on the Moh’s scale, diamonds are known for their remarkable hardness. The only substance that can scratch a diamond is a diamond. Apart from white, diamonds come in several other colors. While blue, green, orange and red are the rarest, yellow and brown are the most common ones.